Luigi Russolo, L'Arte dei rumori (The Art of Noise), 1916.
In addition to other Futurist theoretical books, Russolo's summarizes and augments his previous writings on the same subject. The Art of Noise manifesto, first launched in 1913, was to music what "words-in-freedom" was to literature, i.e. a complete destruction of the musical order and rules in the same way that Futurist literature destroyed the use of syntax. Russolo had a particular experimental tendency as a result of his admiration for the "mechanical nature of a modern metropolis." Thus he invented the intona-rumori (noise-maker) in order to not only imitate the variety of noises of the city, but also to file them into musical families. In this way, Russolo anticipated the research on electro-acoustic music that started with Stravinsky, followed by Honegger and ending with Cage. To give shape to his theories, Russolo (with the help of Ugo Piatti) built some of these noise-maker machines and performed many noise-concerts in Italy and abroad, stirring up not only riots, but also newspaper critics' disapproval.
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